Basic principles of public participation and the usepa toolkit. Public participation in environmental impact assessment. Lessons learned, barriers, and innovative approaches, epa office of policy, economics and innovation, january. Assessment of public participation practices in the public service. A comprehensive text on the theory and practice of public participation written by two leaders in the field, public participation for 21st century democracy explores the theory and practice of public participation in decisionmaking and problemsolving. Active public participation can protect business interests, by reducing public conflict and safeguarding against future risks. Public participation in decisionmaking has been studied as a way to align value judgements and risk tradeoffs with public values and attitudes about acceptable risk. Communication and public participation in environmental. The maastricht recommendations on promoting effective public participation in decisionmaking in environmental matters, as set out in the present document, were prepared by the task force on public participation in decisionmaking under the convention on access to information, public participation in decisionmaking and access to.
For democracy to flourish and deliver on its promisesincluding political participation, human rights, access to justice, a good education, an improved quality of life, a healthy environment, and personal securityits citizens must be informed, engaged, empowered, and assertive. People often lack the ability to participate in decisions that impact their environmentyet no independent tool currently exists to measure and map these gaps in rights. Majority rule and minority rights all democracies are systems in which citizens freely make political decisions by. In this paper, we describe and evaluate four reallife environmental planning projects where mcda was used in different ways to evaluate the alternatives and to support stakeholder involvement. Public participation in environmental assessment and. In more practical terms, however, the jury is still out, probably because scholars and participants alike have long vested in public participation almost impossible hopes and dreams. Using data from 239 cases, the authors evaluate the success of public participation and the contextual and. In the report, the psc categorically urge government departments to institutionalize the practice of public participation by, inter alia, developing their own policies, guidelines and structures such as dedicated public participation units to drive public participation. Daniell 2,3, sabine moellenkamp 4, pieter bots 5 and rianne m. Public participation may be regarded as a way of empowerment and as vital part of democratic governance. Public participation in environmental decisionmaking.
Usepa public participation toolkit developed by usepa to support environmental agencies and staff uses text and video provides an overview of best practices provides assistance in planning and conducting effective public participation introduces. Participation in environmental decisionmaking processes. It examines how public participation developed over time to include myriad thick, thin, and conventional opportunities, occurring in both face. Promoting active citizenry advocacy and participation in. Public participation in eia is commonly deemed to foster democratic policymaking and to render eia more effective. Enhances process legitimacy meaningful public participation in the impact assessment of trade policy and international trade agreements will legitimize the trade process. By consultation processes i mean attempts to enhance public participation in decisions by direct engagement of people through public meetings or other such events, in which. In spite of the expanding role of public participation in environmental decisionmaking, there has been little systematic examination of whether it has, to date, contributed toward better environmental management. Public participation builds trust between parties and strengthens the capacity of all stakeholders to engage in environmental decisions and policies.
This research is of interest for emerging areas of science, including controversial technologies and new applications. Communication in the south african public participation process. Importance of good governance good governance contributes to the realization and reinforcement of human wellbeing and the expansion of human capabilities and their. Similarly, institutions of governance must be inclusive, transparent, accountable, and responsive. Committee on the human dimensions of global change. This chapter explores the basic concepts involved in the call for environmental democracy, in particular citizen participation, environmental deliberation, ecological citizenship, the role of nonhuman life, and the politics of. Acces pdf democracy in practice public participation in environmental decisions affected by a decision have a right to be involved in the decisionmaking process. Casebased evidence the broadest relevant database comes from the work of beierle and cayford 2002 in their ratings of 239 public participation cases covering a great diversity of environmental decision contexts and processes on five outcome variables, which they called social goals. Public participation for 21st century democracy wiley. Public participation in making local environmental decisions good practice handbook 10 affect the environment and also policies and laws.
These measures all provide for public participation in evaluating environmental impact. Pdf public participation in environmental decision making. In recent years loss of public trust in authorities and politicians has become a widespread concern in many democratic societies. Yet a closer look at the literature unveils that, beyond this general assertion, opinions of the precise meaning, objectives and adequate representation of public participation in eia considerably diverge. While many acknowledge that transparency, participation and access to justice are critical to good governance.
Public participation in environmental decision making 187 168 see. Front matter public participation in environmental. Public participation implies that the publics contribution will influence the decision. People have a right and a duty to participate in government and in civil society. Access an overview of edi in english or spanish environmental democracy exists when the public is able to freely access information around environmental impacts, participate meaningfully in decisionmaking, and demand enforcement of environmental laws or compensation for damage. Importance of good governance good governance contributes to the realization and reinforcement of human wellbeing and. Based on our experience, we present five approaches for eliciting preferences or criteria weights of stakeholders, which. To refine and improve public participation in environmental impact assessment, both agency managers and citizens must be open to new approaches buchy and hoverman, 2000, stern and fineberg, 1996.
Public protests have sometimes resulted in stock price depressions and market losses. A comprehensive text on the theory and practice of public participation. Unfortunately, this book cant be printed from the openbook. Democracy in practice brings together, for the first time, the collected experience of 30 years of public involvement in environmental decisionmaking. An evaluation of the national dialogue on public involvement in epa decisions executive summary t he national dialogue on public involvement in epa decisions the dialogue brought together 1,166 people in july 2001 for a. Democracy and participation have always been part of both the environmental movement and environmental political theory. Our analytical focus is on the participation of nonstate actors in public environmental decisionmaking which we use synonymously with environmental governance and how these actors exchange and collaborate with governmental actors in order to reach collectively binding decisions on environmental issues. Maastricht recommendations on promoting effective public. Participatory decisionmaking can take place along any realm of human social activity, including economic i. When done well, public participation can offer clear benefits for. Panel on public participation in environmental assess ment and decision making, thomas dietz and paul c. It examines how public participation developed over time to include myriad thick, thin, and conventional opportunities, occurring in both.
Public participation in making local environmental decisions. Tools of environmental justice and meaningful involvement volume 10 issue 4 troy d. Public participation is the process by which parliament and provincial legislatures consult with the people and interested or affected individuals, organisations and government entities before making a decision. Friends of the earth incorporated v laidlaw environmental services, 528 us 167, 120 s ct 693 2000. Based on the case study of stuttgart 21 a largescale reconstruction of the train station in the german city of stuttgart the citizens understanding of participation and representative democracy is.
It examines how public participation developed over time to include myriad thick, thin, and conventional opportunities, occurring in. Citizens participation in environmental decisionmaking is often considered a condition for the democratic legitimacy of decisions, 1 as well as an important opportunity to improve quality and effectiveness of those decisions. An evaluation framework using social goals thomas c. Evaluating the effectiveness of public participation efforts. Federal agencies have taken steps to include the public in a wide range of environmental decisions. Public participation in environmental decisionmaking has become an indelible feature of many environmental regulatory systems worldwide over the past few decades.
The forms and processes of public participation in environmental decisionmaking by govern ment agencies are highly variable. How to design and realize participation of stakeholders in. It is only by working with the public that decisions will be made which provide a good. Public participation includes standing for elections, voting in elections, becoming informed, holding and attending community meetings, joining. Public participation provides participants with the information they need to participate in a meaningful way public participation communicates to participants how their input affected the decision best practice principles for public participation in protected area management. Mcda is increasingly used to support participatory and collaborative processes. Public participation in environmental decisions make diligent efforts to involve the public. The convention sets out minimum levels of opportunities for participation and the procedures that must be followed. Although some form of public participation is often required by law, agencies usually have broad discretion about the extent of that involvement. Sharing and documenting these experiences can improve public participation in environmental decisions, allowing us to make better decisions while.
Public participation is a regarded as one potential solution to the crisis in public trust and governance, particularly in the uk, europe, and other democracies. Beierle introduction public managers are continually faced with the challenge of making high quality decisions while remaining responsive to the citizens those decisions affect. Active public participation can identify environmental and other externalities that might. Usepa public participation toolkit developed by usepa to support environmental agencies and staff uses text and video provides an overview of best practices provides assistance in planning and conducting effective public participation introduces key public participation skills and behaviors.
Division of behavioral and social sciences and education. State statutes and local codes establish the legally. Visit to get more information about this book, to buy it in print, or to download it as a free pdf. Written by two leaders in the field, public participation for 21 st century democracy explores the theory and practice of public participation in decision making and problemsolving. Environmental democracy index world resources institute. In philosophical terms, the debate seems onesided participation is, on balance, a good thing in a system that calls itself a democracy. Public transport providers face many challenges when engaging the public. Public participation has the potential to create betterquality land use decisions through informed and timely input from the public, and a process that encourages collaborative problem solving.
Using data from 239 cases, the authors evaluate the success of public participation and the contextual and procedural factors that lead to it. If you need to print pages from this book, we recommend downloading it as a pdf. There is a rich literature of cask studies that describe these many forms and corresponding author. An evaluation of the national dialogue on public involvement in epa decisions executive summary t he national dialogue on public involvement in epa decisions the dialogue brought together 1,166 people in july 2001 for a twoweek online discussion of public par. Theoretical perspectives and application in contexts of poverty and inequality 2. This chapter explores the basic concepts involved in the call for environmental democracy, in particular citizen participation, environmental deliberation, ecological citizenship, the role of nonhuman life, and the politics of environmental expertise.
Individuals and organisations affected by development approvals, pollution licences, land use plans and other types. Evaluating public participation in environmental decision. Public participation framework for the south african. Public involvement in environmental decision making in. Sep 17, 20 mcda is increasingly used to support participatory and collaborative processes. Based on our experience, we present five approaches for eliciting preferences or criteria.1464 180 471 48 581 1064 771 667 1102 1200 84 981 952 1209 1098 1221 288 1019 104 833 504 1570 569 1024 85 433 192 1061 197 582 1190 1070 471 489 247 1507 1480 854 529 1110 586 628 376 1160 874 944 331 1300